Scotland (S-kot-land) is a country Occupying the northern
|The Kingdom of Scotland|
National Anthem of the Kingdom
King Charles I
third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with the New Britannic Empire to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlandtic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, Scotland is made up of more than 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
The written protohistory of Scotland began with the arrival of the Roman Empire in southern and central Great Britain, when the Romans occupied what is now England and Wales, administering it as a province called Brittania. Roman invasions and occupations of southern Scotland were a series of brief interludes
In AD 83–84 the General Gnaeus Julius Agricola defeated the Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Tactius wrote that, before the battle, the Caledonian leader, Calgacus, gave a rousing speech in which he called his people the "last of the free" and accused the Romans of "making the world a desert and calling it peace" (freely translated). After the Roman victory, Roman Forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland Line (only Cawdor near Inverness is known to have been constructed beyond that line). Three years after the battle, the Roman Armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands. According to the Roman historian Tactius, the Caledonians "turned to armed resistance on a large scale", attacking Roman forts and skirmishing with their legions. In a surprise night-attack, the Caledonians very nearly wiped out the whole 9th legion until it was saved by Agricola's cavalry.
The Romans erected Hadrian's Wall to control tribes on both sides of the wall, and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire, although the army held the Antionine Wall in the Central Lowlands for two short periods – the last of these during the time of Emperor Septimius Severus from 208 until 210.
The Roman military occupation of a significant part of what is now northern Scotland lasted only about 40 years, although their influence on the southern section of the country, occupied by Brythonic tribes such as the Votadini and Damnonii, would still have been considerable between the first and fifth centuries. The Welsh term Hen Ogledd ("Old North") is used by scholars to describe what is now the North of England and the South of Scotland during its habitation by Brittonic-speaking people around AD 500 to 800. According to writings from the 9th and 10th centuries, the Gaelic kingdom of Dal Diata was founded in the 6th century in western Scotland. The 'traditional' view is settlers from Ireland founded the kingdom, bringing Gaelic language and culture with them. However, recently some archaeologists have argued against this view, saying there is no archaeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites.
Medieval-Early Modern PeriodEdit
World War I & IIEdit
Government And PoliticsEdit
Scotland's head of state is King Charles I. The Scottish Parliament is a legislature with 129 members (MSPs),73 of whom represent individual constituities, and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs serve for a four-year period (exceptionally five years from 2011-16). The King appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament, nominated by the Parliament, to be Prime Minister. Other ministers are also appointed by the Prime Minister and serve at his/her discretion. The leader of the opposition becomes the First Minister. The First Minister serves as the head of the Cabinet of Ministers under the Prime Minister. Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government.
In the 2031 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) formed a minority government after winning 45 seats out of 129. The leader of the SNP, David Cameron Junior, started as Prime Minister. The Conservative continues as the largest opposition party, with the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats, and the Green Party also represented in the Parliament. Margo McDonald is the only independent MSP sitting in parliament. The next Scottish Parliament General Election will be held on 5 May 2035.
Law and Criminal JusticeEdit
Scots law has a basis derived from Roman Law, combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the corpus juris civilis, and common law with medieval sources. Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal Law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse Law. Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s.
Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice:Civil, Criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the Kingdom of Scotland. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. Court of Session is housed at Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.District Courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. These were gradually replaced by Justic of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010. The court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.
For many decades the Scots legal system was unique for being the only legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament, which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible Verdicts: "Guilty", "Not guilty" , "Not proven".
The civil legal system has however attracted much recent criticism from a senior Scottish Judge who referred to it as being "Victorian" and antiquated. The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners. The Cabinet Seceratary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government.
Geography and Natural HistoryEdit
The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. The total area is 78,772 km2 (30,414 sq mi), comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with The New Britannic Empire, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (19 mi) from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre; Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroes, 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north.
The territorial of Scotland is that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the New Britannic Empire; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482.
The geographical Centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch. Rising to 1,344 metres (4,409 ft) above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of 190 kilometres (118 mi).
Economy and InfastructureEdit
Scotland has a western styleopen mixed econoy closely linked with the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea Oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north east of Scotland.
De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy. Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland and the sixth largest financial centre in Europe in terms of funds under management, behind London, Paris, Frankfurt, Zurich and Amsterdam, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group(owners of the Halifax Bank of Scotland); the Government owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life.
In 2005, total Scottish exports were provisionally estimated to be £17.5 billion, of which 70% (£12.2 billion) were attributable to manufacturing. Scotland's primary exports include whiskey, electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets. Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012. Scotland holds 80% of the former NBE oil reserves Scotland also has up to 25% of Europe's renewable-energy potential
Scots generate £10,700 per head in taxes, according to the Scottish government, but also receive more per head in spending. In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy". Overall, Scotland generated 9.9% (£56.9bn) of the UK's tax revenues with just 8.4% of the UK population prior the independence. Over the past thirty years, Scotland contributed a relative budget surplus of almost £20billion to the NBE economy. In the final quarter of 2030, the Scottish economy recorded 0.5% growth, outperforming the New Britannic Empire, which recorded a contraction of 0.3%. Scotland also outperforms the rest of the NBE in both employment and unemployment levels, with the Scottish unemployment rate currently standing at 7.1% as of June 2013, well below the NBE figure of 7.8%. Scotland's youth unemployment rate is much lower as well, standing at 15.2% compared to 19.5% for the NBE. The employment rate is also higher north of the border, standing at 72.2% in comparison with the UK figure of 71.5%.
The population of Scotland in the 2001 Census was 5,062,011. This has risen to 6,251,400, the highest ever, according to the first results of the 2032 Census. This would make Scotland the 113th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. With a population of just over 584,000, this honour falls to Glasgow. The Greater Gasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.5 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population.
The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located. Glasgow is to the west, while Edinburgh and Dundee lie on the east coast, with Perth (its city status restored in 2012) lying 20 miles upstream on the River Tay from Dundee. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen, on the east coast to the north. The Highlands are sparsely populated, although the city of Iverness has experienced rapid growth in recent years.
In general, only the more accessible and larger islands retain human populations. Currently, fewer than 90 remain inhabited. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry. Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were created between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride,Glenrothes, Livingston, Cumbernauld, and Irvine.
Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee small South Asian communities. In 2001, there were an estimated 31,793 Pakistanis living in Scotland, making them the single largest non-White ethnic group. Since the recent Enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and it is estimated that between 40,000 and 50,000 Poles now live there.
There are many more people with Scottish ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland. In the 2030 Census, 9.2 million Former Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent. Ulster's Protestant population is mainly of lowland Scottish descent, and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million descendants of the Scots-Irish migration now living in the former US. In Canada, the Scottish Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million people. About 20% of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland.Scotland has three officially recognised languages: English, Scots, and Scottish Gaelic. Almost all Scots speak Scottish English, and in 2031, the General Register Office for Scotland estimated that 30% of the population are fluent in Scots. Others speak Highland English. Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large proportion of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population. The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 – 7% of the population – in 1881 to 60,000 today.
In August 2012, the Scottish population had reached an all time high, reaching 6.25 million people. The reason given was that in Scotland births were out numbering the number of Scottish deaths, and due to immigrants coming into Scotland from overseas. In 2099, 43,700 people moved from Wales, Northern Ireland or England to live in Scotland.
The total fertality (TFR) in Scotland is below the replacement rate of 2.1 (the TFR was 1.73 in 2011). The majority of births today are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2028).
The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from the rest of Europe, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education. Scotland was the first country since Sparta in Classical Greence to implement a system of general public education. Schooling was made compulsory for the first time in Scotland with the Education Act of 1496; then, in 1561, the Church of Scotland set out a national programme for spiritual reform, including a school in every parish. Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act (1872)
The "Curriculum for Excellence" provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18. All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); today, children in Scotland study Standard Grades, or Intermediate qualifications between the ages of 14 and 16. These are being phased out and replaced by the National Qualifications of the Curriculum for Excellence. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study forAccess,Intermediate or Higher Grade and Advanced Higher qualifications. A small number of students at certain private, independant schools may follow the English System and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-levels instead.
There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world. These include the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Dundee. Proportionally, Scotland has more universities in QS' World University Rankings top 100 than any other nation in the world. The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports. Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees.
Scotland's Universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 Colleges. Colleges offer National Certificates, Higher National Certificates and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs.
As of 2030, of the money spent on Scottish defence is about £1.89 billion.
Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments, with mixed public feelings. Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the Ethonian fleet of PolarisBallistic Missile Submarines. Today, His Majesty's Scottish Naval Base Clyde, 25 miles (40 kilometres) north west of Glasgow, is the base for the majority of the Scottish Surface Fleet. Scapa Flow is the base for the Nation's 2 Astute-Class Nuclear-Powered Submarines.
Two Royal Scottish Airforce bases are also located in Scotland. These are RSAF Leuchars and RSAF Lossiemouth, the last of which is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the British Isles.
The only open-air live depleted uranium weapons test range in the British Isles is located near Dundrenan. As a result, over 7000 potentially toxic munitions lie on the seabed of the Solway Firth.The Royal Scottish Navy is the Armed Naval Froces of the Kingdom of Scotland. Though small in comparison to some other European forces it is one of the most well-equipped naval forces of it's size on the planet. The Navy currently maintains a surface fleet of 31 ships based at HMSB Clyde and a submarine fleet of 2 submarines based at HMSB Scappa Flow. As of next year , after extensive refit, HMSB Scappa Flow will become the main, and only Scottish Fleet Base.
Scotland currently maintains a total fleet of 31 surface ships, and 2 submarines. This force includes the newly commisioned HMSS Illustrious- A Inviceible Class Aircraft Carrier recently refit to be currently used as a helicopter carrier, the flagship of the scottish fleet. It also contains a group of 5 Type-23 frigates, 10 Type-11 Defender Class Patrol Vessels, and other research ships and slavage vessels.
Air ForceEditThe Royal Scottish Airforce is the Air Division of the Scottish Armed Forces. Firsy incorperated as the Royal Air Force during british rule in WWI, Many scottish men fought galliantly in both World wars and in conflicts since. After independance the Scottish Air Force aquired 5 CF-18 aircraft from Western Canada, and various older fixed-ing aircraft from the Royal Air Force. It currently operates 2 air bases, the most well known being RSAF Lossiemouth. The Air Force currently operates a fleet of CH-Merlins, the majority being based on the HMSS Illustrious, the Helicopter Carrier, and flag ship of the Royal Scottish Navy. Scotland is currently negotiating a deal with California's Lockheed-Martin to aquire 10 -35 Lightining Fighters.
The Royal Scottish Army is the main land-fighting force of the Kingdom of Scotland. The Scottish Army currently comprises of 10 000 active personell divided into 3 divisions: The Scottish Highlanders, The Royal Scottish Guards, and the 3rd Regiment of Scots. There is also 2 other smaller divisions: The Edinburgh Guards of Artillery which comprises of 500 men and the 10 Scottish 150mm Howitzers and The Edinburgh Guard which comprises of 200 men. The Edinburgh Guard is the King's personal protection force. Their is currently 700 reservists employed by the Army. The Army has a Division of 25 Challenger-II main battle tanks purely for home defence.
Challenger II - Main battle tank
L118 Light Gun
The Scottish Highlanders
Scottish Music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland Bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe Bands, featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world. The clarsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands.
Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh Literature. Later medieval literature included works in Latin, Gaelic, Old English and French. The first surviving major text in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour's epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I, and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works. In the 16th century the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry, but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment. It was also a major influence onRobert Burns, whom many consider the national poet, and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century. Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald. In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language as a medium for serious literature. Members of the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets including Edwin Morgan, who would be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004. From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh. Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet Laureate.
Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland, a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television stations, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, amongst others. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV. National newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, and The Scotsman are all produced in Scotland. Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north. Scotland is represented at theCeltic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.
As one of the Celtic nations, Scotland and Scottish culture is represented at interceltic events at home and over the world. Scotland hosts several music festivals including Celtic Connections (Glasgow), and theHebridean Celtic Festival (Stornoway). Festivals celebrating Celtic culture, such as Festival Interceltique de Lorient (Brittany), the Pan Celtic Festival (Ireland), and the National Celtic Festival (Portarlington, Australia), feature elements of Scottish culture such as language, music and dance
- Fort William*
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