People's Republic of the Congo
"Justice - Paix - Travail" (French)
"Justice - Peace - Work"
and largest city
|Government||Presidential Constitutional Republic|
|-||President||Daniel Sassaou Kabila|
|-||Vice President||Joseph Matata Ondimba|
|-||Assembly Chairman||Denis Ali Ponyo|
|-||Lower house||General Assembly|
|August 16h, 1960|
|June 30th, 1960|
|July 13th, 1967|
End of Civil War
|July 1st, 2012|
|-||Total||~2,613,418 KM2 (1,009,046 sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2038 Estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2038 Estimate|
|Currency||Congolese Franc (CGF)|
WAT and CAT
|Drives on the||Right|
|ISO 3166 code||CG|
The People's Republic of the Congo (French: République populaire du Congo), also known as PRC, PR Congo, Gabon-Congo, or simply Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is neighbored by Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Manza, Banda, and Ethiopia to the north, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania to the east, Zambia and Angola to the south, and Cabinda and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. With an area of 2,613,418 KM2 (1,009,046 sq mi), it is one of the largest countries in both Africa and the world (specific ranking isn't possible at this moment in time). With a population of over 102 million, the People's Republic of the Congo is the most populous officially Francophone country and one of the most populous nations in both Africa and the world (specific ranking isn't possible at this moment in time).
The People's Republic of the Congo originally united under the name of the Democratic Republic of Zaire on July 13th, 1967, bringing together the former French colony Gabon-Congo and the former Belgian colony of Congo, under the rule of Mobuto Sese Seko. President Mobuto ruled the country, at times with an iron fist, until 1975, when a military coup successfuly forced him out of office and instated what would become the Communist Party of Zaire by 1977. This began what would become a two decade long regime that would ultimately lead the nation to civil war. The Congolese Civil War began in 1996 following the Kisangani Masacre and lasted until July 1st, 2012, when an International Union mediated peace agreement lead to the creation of the Transitional Government of the Congo, which was able to establish a constitution and free and fair elections leading up to the start of the People's Republic of the Congo's rule beginning on January 1st, 2013.
The country is extremely rich in natural resources and is believed to be one of the richest countries on earth in that regard, however until recently political instability, a culture of corruption, and lack of infrastructure had made it difficult for these resources to be tapped, at one point making the Congo one of the most impoverished nations on earth. Since the transition to the People's Republic, the Congo has seen a significant boost to its economy and widespread development of infrastructure, allowing perhaps for the first time the oppurtunity to tap said riches and bring economic prosperity to the nation. The Congo's largest exports are raw minerals, with the government expecting to increase mining activity a further 50% by 2044, however the nation also exports agricultural goods as well and its industrial base has begun to grow in recent years.
The People's Republic of the Congo was formerly known as, in chronological order, Congo Free State, French Congo, Belgian Congo, Republic of the Congo, Republic of Gabon-Congo and Democratic Republic of Zaïre.
The country was known officially as the "Democratic Republic of Zaire" from 1967 to 2012, when it was changed to the "People's Republic of the Congo" following the end of the Congolese Civil War.
The People's Republic of the Congo has its roots in the nations of the Republic of Gabon-Congo, which gained independence from France on August 16th, 1960, and the Republic of the Congo, which gained independence from Belgium on June 10th, 1960. The two nations, with their shared tongue, shared history, cultural similarities, common interests, and the leadership of Mobuto Sese Seko, were both able to come to an agreement on unification after the meeting of leaders in Kinshasa on July 13th, 1967, after which they rattified a new constituion for what would become the Democratic Republic of Zaire (République démocratique du Zaïre). Mobuto Sese Seko was the President and political leader of this new united nation between 1967 and 1975, when he was forced to flee the country after a military coup successfully captured Kinshasa.
The 1975 Military Coup marked the beginning of a new era in the Congo's history as the new government, under the influence of the Federative Republic of Brazil, began to enact new policies to consolidate power in the hands of the ruling party, which renamed itself the Communist Party of Zaire (Parti communiste du Zaïre) in 1977. The PCZ continued with widespread social, economic, and political reforms despite lack of popular support and several early major protests which were met with violence by police and the military. The Democratic Republic of Zaire remained heavily under Brazillian influence for most of the rest of the 20th century, being a major supplier of rare raw materials and supplying military support in minor conflicts.In March, 1996, a series of conflicts between the military and protesters resulted in what would come to be known as the Kisangani Masacre. The Kisangani Masacre left hundreds of civilians dead or severely injured and sparked national unrest. By April severeal reports of armed rebels had already begun to spread and the Congolese Civil War was in full swing by June. The Congolese Civil War left the country severely splintered for over a decade and, while estimates vary, it is believed there were as many as 6.2 Million deaths between 1996 and 2012. The PCZ regime eventually fell in 2007, however fighting still continued among the various other factions involved in the conflict. In 2009, the International Union was able to arrange for a temporary ceasefire, the first time the factions had been able to form any sort of agreement, however the agreement quickly fell apart in only a matter of weeks.
Another ceasefire was arranged in early 2010, this time the IU sending about 100 liason officers to help enforce the ceasefire. However, the agreement again fell apart, this time within three months. By late 2010, the IU had authorized a force of 6,348 troops to monitor a third ceasefire, however fighting still continued on with almost no pause or decline. As the condition of many factions continued to worsen in 2011, more began to become open to new agreements, allowing the IU to be able to get more factions to agree to come to the table. This became the foundation of what would become the Khartoum Agreement, named after the Sudanese capital city of Khartoum that hosted negotiations, which established a framework for establishing a transitional government that would be able to create a lasting, united government in the Congo region.
With the formation of the Transitional Government of the Congo on July 1st, 2012, the country once again began to use the name Congo, shedding the name Zaire which has come to be associated with much of the violence in the nation's history. The Transitional Government was able to pass a new constitution and successfully hold free and fair democratic elections with IU monitors and gave way to the People's Republic of the Congo, the PRC taking control on January 1st, 2013.
The PRC is located on the Atlantic Coast in the center of sub-Saharan Africa along the ecuator. PRC is bounded by (clockwise from the northwest) Iberian Guinea, Cameroon, Manza, Banda, Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania across lake Tanganyika, Zambia, Angola, and the unrecognized state of Cabinda along the Atlantic coast.The PRC has a diverse array of terrain, ranging from plateaus to savannah to grassland to mountainous terraces to glaciated mountains in the extreme eastern region, but overall it tends to be mostly rainforest, As a result of its equatorial location, the Congo experiences high precipitation and has the highest frequency of thunderstorms in the world.The annual rainfall can average upward of 2,000 milimeters (80 in.) in some places, and the area sustains the Congo Rainforest, the second largest rainforest in the world after the Amazon.
The tropical climate has also produced the Congo River system which dominates the region topographically and which the PRC is named after in part. The river and its tributaries have long formed the backbone of Congolese economics and transportation, even still today in this modernizing age.
Due to tectonic activities from the Albertine Rift, which plays a major role in shaping the Congo's geography, in the mountainous northeast of the country, the region experiences volcanic activity, occasionally with loss of life. This volcanic activity is also what made the famous African Great Lakes, four of which lay on the Congo's eastern frontier: Lake Kivu, Lake Albert, Lake Edward, and Lake Tanganyika.
The Rift Valley has exposed an enourmous amount of mineral wealth throughout the south and east of the Congo, making it accessible to mining various valuable minerals including coal, diamonds, gold, silver, uranium, cobalt, copper, and so on.
The Congo has several IUSECO Global Heritage Sites, primarily consisting of national parks and nature reserves. The PRC also has a substantial amount of land set aside for national parks and nature preserves, putting it firmly on the map as a major ecotourism destination.
Government and PoliticsEdit
The People's Republic of the Congo is a Presidential Constitutional Republic. It is divided into three branches, executive, legislative, and judicial. The executive branch is headed by President Kabila, who is also the commander in cheif of the Congolese armed forces, and the Vice President. The legislature is a bicameral Parliament, consisting of the General Assembly as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. The General Assembly is headed by the Assembly Chairman who is typically selected by the party with the most seats in the Assembly, where as the Senate is headed by the Vice President who is elected into office alongside the President during national presidential elections. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Constitutional Court, the members of the court being nominated by the President and approved by the Senate, and which is lead by the Cheif Justice who is chosen by the President after consulting with the Vice President and Assembly Chairman.
In 2039 President Kabila presented the "Protection of Universal Right to Bodily Autonomy" bill in the General Assembly with the support of his party. The bill establishes stricter sentencing, grants law enforcement greater authority, creates a new fund to aid victims of bodily autonomy violations, and creates a new program designed to both encourage more victims to come forward to report crimes and to better educate the general public on the issue. President Kabila has said that he believes this bill will help make the Congo safer, put the country on a path towards complying with IUWA R.3,017, and would help reduce stigma surrounding victims. The opposition party has expressed mild amount of support for the bill as well, likely ensuring its passage in both houses of Parliament.
The People's Republic of the Congo remains an active part of the international communiy despite blows to its diplomatic standing as a result of its involvement in World War IV. The PRC is an active member of the International Union, a participant in the International Olympic Games - though not having sent athletes in the most recent games, a founding member of the Group of Petroleum Exporting States, and a founding member of the Central Trade Organization.
The Congo also participates in a number of minor regional organizations, one of which meets annually in Addis Ababa to discuss regional politics and economic policy. In 2039, said organization made headlines after one of its agenda matters was on the land dispute in Egypt, calling the International Union's holding of Cairo an "illegal occupation". President Kabila, as well as the President of Ethiopia, have both become public figures for the issue, stating that it is the "moral obligation of all African nations to defend against outside occupation." President Kabila had also made comments prior to the conference, stating that "it is a great injustice that the International Union has forced Egypt apart for so long" and that "it is time the IU operate within a single Egypt". These events have escalated, resulting in high levels of tension between the Congo and Iberia, who controls Iberian Guinea to the northwest of the PRC, and prompted national leaders to echo a single message, "Africa for the Africans".
The Congo also has a long history of conflict with neighboring Angola over the possession of the territory of Cabinda. The PRC's current stance is that the territory should be allowed its request for independence, and attempted to force the matter by attempting to liberate the territory militarily during WWIV. The Congo is the only nation to recognize the Republic of Cabinda.
In 2039, the People's Republic of the Congo helped sponsor International Union World Assembly Resolution 3,061, which helps establish aid efforts and refugee camps for victims of the rise in conflict in Mongolia and Manchukuo. The People's Republic was also one of the first nations to authorize the transfer of funds to the International Union's fund for aid in Central Asia in response to this issue.
The People's Republic of the Congo is one of the wealthiest nations on earth, having trillions of Francs worth in natural resources including oil, diamonds, coltan, colbalt, copper, gold, zinc, tin, tungston, wood, coffee, sugar, cocoa, manganese, coal, uranium, and more. While the PRC's infrastructure was damaged and economy slowed down by WWIV, government figures released on 2039 have shown that petroleum production is back to pre-war levels, unemployment has declined roughly 10%, and returning veterans are not contributing to any significant rise in unemployment.
The Congolese Parliament passed the "Let the People Work" bill in 2039, which significantly deregulates the mining industry with the stated goal of encouraging the creation of more mining related jobs and of meeting a government goal of increasing mining by at least 50% by 2044. This bill was met with protests in Kinshasa over environmental and worker safety concerns, however supporters of the bill have dismissed these claims and focused primarily on the supposed economic benefits of it.
The Congo has a long history of minimal and poorly maintained infrastructure, however since the formation of the People's Republic policies and efforts have successfully been aimed as drastically better developing the infrastructure of the nation. These efforts have been in part supported by a sizable amount of foreign aid, primarily from the International Union, as well as from profits from mining, where the Congolese government gets the majority of its funds from.
The Congo has a major national highway system as well as several major roads that cross the sprawling country. However, government data suggests that automobiles are not the primary mode of transportation for most Congolese, instead walking and bicycling rank highest on surveys, though automobile ridership has been on the rise as poverty declines and the nation further urbanizes. The PRC also has several well developed ports and airports, handeling a sizable amount of cargo and passengers each day as large quantites of valuable resources are exported to trade partners and various goods are imported to help supply the growing quality of life in the Congo. As a part of a several year project to revitalize the downtown area of the capital city of Kinshasa, the city government announced in 2039 an added goal of constructing a moderate sized subway system for the crowded city. While the title is disputed by some, Kinshasa is said to be the largest Francophone city in the world, larger even than Paris, however it is presently almost entirely lacking in any adequate public transportation and thus suffers from crippling traffic.