The Khanate of Mongolia

Монгол ханлиг

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Flag Coat of Arms

"Ald bie min Aljaavaas aljaatugai, Ahui tur min buu aljaatugai."

"Let my body be mortal, but may my people and country never perish".

Mongolian National Anthem - instrumental (1)
Capital Ulaanbaatar
Largest city Ulaanbaatar
National language Mongol, Spanish, Chinese
Demonym Mongolian
Government Khanate
 -  Khan Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
 -  Minister of Trade and Finance Tusheet
 -  Minister of War Zasagt
 -  Total 1,564,115.75 km2

603,909 sq mi

 -  Water (%) 0.43
 -  2013 estimate

2030 estimates



 -  Density 1.84/km2

4.79 /sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2032 estimate
 -  Total $31.470 billion
 -  Per capita $3,627
GDP (nominal) 2032 estimate
 -  Total $22.100 billion
 -  Per capita $3,627
Gini (2011) 36.5
HDI (2013) 0.675
Currency Tögrög (MNT)
Time zone UTC+7 to +8
 -  Summer (DST)  N/A
Drives on the right
Calling code +976
ISO 3166 code MN
Internet TLD .mn, .мон


Mongolia is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and also the largest city, is home to about 45% of the population. Mongolia's political system is a Khanate. At 1,564,116 square kilometers (603,909 sq mi), Mongolia is the 19th largest independent country in the world, with a population of around 2.9 million people.

Government and recent political happenings Edit

Leader: Khan

Term: life

Ministers: War, Foreign Affairs, State, Agriculture, and Defense

Terms: Varying

Political Parties: Communist (Outlawed), Conservative, Iron (Outlawed), Khanate, Liberal, Parliamentary, Independent, and Facist

Speeches: The Khans Speech on Chinese Arrogance

Political scandals: Mongol Iron revolt, Chinese refusement to hand over MI remnants and even goes as far to protect them


The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Gökturks, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, and his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan Dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict and occasional raids on the Chinese borderlands. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Mongolia came under the influence of Tibetan Buddhism. At the end of the 17th century, all of Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu's Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty the Mongols established Temporary Government of Khalkha in 30 November 1911. On 29 December 1911 Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty and this National Liberation Revolution ended the Manchu's rule that lasted 220 years (153 years after the collapse of the Zunghar Khanate).

Population and distrubutionEdit

The demonym for the people of Mongolia is Mongolian. The name Mongol usually accounts for people of the Mongol ethnic group, thus excluding Turkic groups such as Kazakhs and Tuvans. Ethnic Mongols account for about 97% of the population and consist of Khalkh and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongolian language. The Khalkhs make up 86% of the ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 14% include Oirats, Buryats and others. Ethnic distinctions among the Mongol subgroups are relatively minor. Language or tribal differences are not a political or social issue. Significant Ethnic Turkic speaker Kazakhs constitute 3.9% of Mongolia's population and the other Tuvan, Khoton, Chantuu, Tsaatan are Mongolized people with Turkic origin and speak in Mongolian. Smaller numbers of Russian, Chinese, Korean and American people working in Mongolia, since 1990. English is the most widely used foreign language followed by Russian. Lately, Japanese, Korean and German are gaining popularity. Various forms of Tengriism and Shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now Mongolia, as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Such beliefs gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture, and continues to be practiced. Traditionally, Tibetan Buddhism was the predominant religion. However, it was suppressed under the communist regime until 1990, with only one showcase monastery allowed to remain. Since 1990, as liberalization began, Buddhism has enjoyed a resurgence.


Literacy rate is the percentage of people over the age of 15 who can read and write. Total population: 98.3% After a decline in enrollment ratios during the transition to a market economy in the 1990, school attendance is now once more near-universal: primary school attendance rate is estimated at 97%, and adult literacy at 98%. Mongolia's education system has undergone major changes in the past century. The education reforms during russian times were a stark break with traditional education that was often religious and esoteric. These reforms were modeled on Soviet education systems and greatly expanded access to education for Mongolian citizens. Among the changes was a transition from the traditional Mongolian script, from 1941 to 1946, to the Cyrillic alphabet. Literacy was greatly expanded as most of the population enjoyed free primary school. However, the move to democracy and free markets in the 1990s has had some negative impacts on education in Mongolia, though these setbacks have been ameliorated some by an improving economy and policy reforms. Many adults benefit from the non-formal distance education programs sponsored by the government in conjunction with foreign NGOs. Today education in Mongolia is overseen by the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Science. n June 2011, VSO Mongolia published a report on the education sector which looked at progress, challenges and future priorities given the current socio-economic changes in Mongolia.[1] The report, which was launched to commemorate IYV+10 (10th Anniversary of the International Year of Volunteers), showed that there were numerous opportunities presented by the high level of economic growth, which has brought more resources into the sector. However, it showed that as Mongolia emerges onto the world stage, the disparity between rich and poor could leave many marginalised when it comes to benefiting from education. The report argued that the Mongolian government has made an immense effort to develop the education sector at all levels since its transition to democracy with an admirable openness and willingness to progress towards its further development. This was particularly noted in accommodating for Mongolia's unique country characteristics such as the nomadic lifestyle, low population density in remote areas, and striving towards meeting international standards. The report also showed that Mongolian people have always valued education over other attributes and have habitually made it their priority to educate their children. Due to these efforts, the findings showed that overall the parents were satisfied with their children’s progress at school. However, there were still many challenges that remain to be tackled. The findings also showed that amongst all stakeholders, there was an overwhelming majority who gave a negative response when asked about the performance of the sector at present; this was in the quality of education (68%), access to education (83%), and the inclusiveness of the system for disadvantaged groups (76%). In concluding what VSO Mongolia achieved in its education programme over the last 20 years, the report showed that international volunteers have and continue to make a significant impact in the development of the education sector. Stakeholders who took part in this research generally held a positive view of the role and influence of the international volunteers, with 67% of respondents regarding them as having played a crucial role in education. While just over half of respondents had experience of working with international volunteers, 94% of respondents were willing to work with them in the future. At this stage in Mongolia’s development, the relevance and impact of international volunteering was highlighted when addressing these challenges and future priorities in taking the education sector forward to achieve its ultimate goal of "Education for All."


Size: 456,789

Vehicles and armsEdit


Special forces PP-93:134, RG-6: 89

Kosar Rifle: 147,456

IMI Galil:12,345


IMI Galatz: 6,789

RPG-7: 12,789

Ground forceEdit









BM-21 Grad:130









Aircraft and defenseEdit


Mil Mi-24 Hind: 11

Mil Mi-8 Hip:11

Air defenseEdit

S-75 Dvina:123

S-125 Pechora-2M:12

9K32 Strela-2:250

ZSU-23-4 "Shilka":67



Yakovlev Yak-130 Mitten:567

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